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Saturday, January 02, 2010

410 BC to 350 BC; Organic Review of 3,000 Years of Global History

Readers are invited to post occurrences and opinions, lives and interpretations relative to the post provided for each time period. Consider this as a first draft, to be expanded in the months and years ahead.

Academia and culture were in conflict with the oppressors in Athens, as Aristophanes' comedies protested war and in 403 BC Socrates refused to cooperate with the 30 tyrants. By 399 BC, Socrates was tried and executed in Athens.

Circa 410 BC, Carthage's Iberian colonies revolt and secede cutting off Carthage's major supply of silver and copper. Hannibal Mago, the grandson of the Carthaginian general Hamilcar (who unsuccessfully invaded Sicily in 480 BC), begins preparations to reclaim Sicily.

Around 400 BC, Artaxerxes II King of Persia appoints Tissaphernes to take over all the districts in Asia Minor over which Artaxerxes II's brother Cyrus had been governor before his revolt. London has its origins on a rise above marshy waters at the point where the Walbrook joins the River Thames. The Celtic king, Belin, rebuilds an earth wall surrounding a few dozen huts and orders a small landing place to be cut into the south side of the wall, along the river front, where a wooden quay is built (approximate date).

Amyrtaeus of Sais successfully completes a revolt against Persian control by gaining control of all of Upper Egypt. By 390 BC, the Pharaoh of Egypt, Hakor (Akoris), concludes a tripartite alliance with Evagoras, king of Cyprus, and Athens. Circa 384 BC, Aristotle was born, and four years later the Egyptian Pharaoh Hakor dies and is succeeded by his son Nepherites II, but he is overthrown by Nectanebo I within the year, ending the Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Egypt. Nectanabo (or more properly Nekhtnebef) becomes the first Pharaoh of the Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt.

By 360 BC, with the assistance of King Agesilaus II of Sparta, Nectanebo II deposes Teos and becomes king of Egypt. Teos flees to Susa and makes peace with the Persians. Nectanebo II is reported to have paid the Spartans 230 talents for their help.

Notable births in this era included Philip II of Macedonia (b 382 bc). Chinese astronomers Gan De and Shi Shen, Chinese philosopher and sage Mencius (b 371 bc; expanded upon and expounded teachings of Confucious), and Ptolemy I Soter (b 367 bc). By the middle of the century, Panini describes the grammar and morphology of Sanskrit in the text Ashtadhyayi. Panini's standardized Sanskrit is today known as Classical Sanskrit.

Also close to 350 BC, Aristotle argues for a spherical Earth using lunar eclipses and other observations, and he discusses logical reasoning in Organon.

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